Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements (continued)
3. Significant accounting policies (continued)
(g) Intangible assets
(v) Subsequent expenditure
Report of the
Report of the
Annual Report 2016
Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and represents the excess of the cost of the acquisition over
HEINEKEN's interest in net fair value of the net identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree.
Goodwill on acquisitions of subsidiaries is included in 'intangible assets'. Goodwill arising on the acquisition of associates and joint ventures
is included in the carrying amount of the associates and joint ventures.
Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses (refer to accounting policy 3i(ii)). Goodwill is allocated to individual or groups of
cash-generating units (CGUs) for the purpose of impairment testing and is tested annually for impairment. Negative goodwill is recognised directly
in profit or loss as other income.
Brands acquired, separately or as part of a business combination, are capitalised if they meet the definition of an intangible asset and the
recognition criteria are satisfied.
Strategic brands are well-known international/local brands with a strong market position and an established brand name. Strategic brands are
amortised on an individual basis over the estimated useful life of the brand. Other brands are amortised on a portfolio basis per country.
(iii) Customer-related, contract-based intangibles and reacquired rights
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles are capitalised if they meet the definition of an intangible asset and the recognition criteria
are satisfied. If the amounts are not material, these are included in the brand valuation. The relationship between brands and customer-related
intangibles is carefully considered so that brands and customer-related intangibles are not both recognised on the basis of the same cash flows.
Reacquired rights are identifiable intangible assets recognised in an acquisition that represent the right an acquirer previously has granted to the
acquiree to use one or more of the acquirer's recognised or unrecognised assets.
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles acquired as part of a business combination are valued at fair value. Customer-related and
contract-based intangibles acquired separately are measured at cost.
Customer-related, contract-based intangibles and reacquired rights are amortised over the remaining useful life of the customer relationships
or the period of the contractual arrangements.
(iv) Software, research and development and other intangible assets
Purchased software is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation (refer to (vi)) and impairment losses (refer to accounting policy 3i(ii)).
Expenditure on internally developed software is capitalised when the expenditure qualifies as development activities, otherwise it is recognised
in profit or loss when incurred.
Expenditure on research activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new technical knowledge and understanding, is recognised in profit
or loss when incurred.
Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products, software and processes.
Development expenditure is capitalised only if development costs can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially
feasible, future economic benefits are probable, and HEINEKEN intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell
the asset. The expenditure capitalised includes the cost of materials, direct labour and overhead costs that are directly attributable to preparing
the asset for its intended use, and capitalised borrowing costs. Other development expenditure is recognised in profit or loss when incurred.
Capitalised development expenditure is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation (refer to (vi)) and accumulated impairment losses
(refer to accounting policy 3i(ii)).
Other intangible assets that are acquired by HEINEKEN and have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation (refer
to (vi)) and impairment losses (refer to accounting policy 3i(ii)). Expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands is recognised in profit
or loss when incurred.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates.
All other expenditure is expensed when incurred.