Notes to the consolidated financial statements continued
3. Significant accounting policies continued
Goodwill arising on the acquisition of a non-controlling interest in a subsidiary represents the excess of the cost of the additional investment over the
carrying amount of the interest in the net assets acquired at the date of exchange.
Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses (refer accounting policy 3i(ii)). Goodwill is allocated to individual or groups of cash-
generating units (CGUs) for the purpose of impairment testing and is tested annually for impairment. Negative goodwill is recognised directly in profit
or loss as other income.
Brands acquired, separately or as part of a business combination, are capitalised if they meet the definition of an intangible asset and the recognition
criteria are satisfied.
Strategic brands are well-known international/local brands with a strong market position and an established brand name. Strategic brands are amortised
on an individual basis over the estimated useful life of the brand. Other brands are amortised on a portfolio basis per country.
(iii) Customer-related, contract-based intangibles and reacquired rights
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles are capitalised if they meet the definition of an intangible asset and the recognition criteria
are satisfied. If the amounts are not material these are included in the brand valuation. The relationship between brands and customer-related
intangibles is carefully considered so that brands and customer-related intangibles are not both recognised on the basis of the same cash flows.
Reacquired rights are identifiable intangible assets recognised in an acquisition that represent the right an acquirer previously has granted to the
acquiree to use one or more of the acquirer's recognised or unrecognised assets.
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles acquired as part of a business combination are valued at fair value. Customer-related and contract-
based intangibles acquired separately are measured at cost.
Customer-related, contract-based intangibles and reacquired rights are amortised over the remaining useful life of the customer relationships or the
period of the contractual arrangements.
(iv) Software, research and development and other intangible assets
Purchased software is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation (refer (vi)) and impairment losses (refer accounting policy 3i(ii)). Expenditure
on internally developed software is capitalised when the expenditure qualifies as development activities, otherwise it is recognised in profit or loss
Expenditure on research activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new technical knowledge and understanding, is recognised in profit or loss
Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products, software and processes. Development
expenditure is capitalised only if development costs can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future
economic benefits are probable, and H EINEKEN intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset. The
expenditure capitalised includes the cost of materials, direct labour and overhead costs that are directly attributable to preparing the asset for its
intended use, and capitalised borrowing costs. Other development expenditure is recognised in profit or loss when incurred.
Capitalised development expenditure is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation (refer (vi)) and accumulated impairment losses (refer
accounting policy 3i(ii)).
Other intangible assets that are acquired by HEINEKEN and have finite useful lives, are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation (refer (vi)) and
impairment losses (refer accounting policy 3i(ii)). Expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands is recognised in profit or loss when incurred.
Heineken N.V. Annual Report 2012