Notes to the consolidated financial statements continued
3. Significant accounting policies continued
Subsidiaries are entities controlled by HEINEKEN. Control exists when EIEINEKEN has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and
operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that currently are exercisable or
convertible are taken into account. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that
control commences until the date that control ceases. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency
with the policies adopted by HEINEKEN. Losses applicable to the non-controlling interests in a subsidiary are allocated to the non-controlling interests
even if doing so causes the non-controlling interests to have a deficit balance.
(iv) Special Purpose Entities (SPEs)
An SPE is consolidated if, based on an evaluation of the substance of its relationship with HEINEKEN and the SPEs risks and rewards, HEINEKEN
concludes that it controls the SPE. SPEs controlled by HEINEKEN were established under terms that impose strict limitations on the decision-making
powers of the SPEs management and that result in HEINEKEN receiving the majority of the benefits related to the SPEs operations and net assets,
being exposed to the majority of risks incident to the SPEs activities, and retaining the majority of the residual or ownership risks related to the SPEs
or their assets.
(v) Loss of control
Upon the loss of control, HEINEKEN derecognises the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary, any non-controlling interests and the other components of
equity related to the subsidiary. Any surplus or deficit arising on the loss of control is recognised in profit or loss. If HEINEKEN retains any interest in the
previous subsidiary, then such interest is measured at fair value at the date that control is lost. Subsequently it is accounted for as an equity-accounted
investee or as an available-for-sale financial asset depending on the level of influence retained.
(vi) Investments in associates and joint ventures
Investments in associates are those entities in which HEINEKEN has significant influence, but not control, over the financial and operating policies.
Significant influence is presumed to exist when the Group holds between 20 and 50 per cent of the voting power of another entity. loint ventures are
those entities over whose activities HEINEKEN has joint control, established by contractual agreement and requiring unanimous consent for strategic
financial and operating decisions.
Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method (equity-accounted investees) and are recognised initially at cost.
The cost of the investment includes transaction costs.
The consolidated financial statements include H EINEKEN's share of the profit or loss and other comprehensive income, after adjustments to align the
accounting policies with those of HEINEKEN, from the date that significant influence or joint control commences until the date that significant influence
or joint control ceases.
When HEINEKEN's share of losses exceeds the carrying amount of the associate, including any long-term investments, the carrying amount is reduced
to nil and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that H EINEKEN has an obligation or has made a payment on behalf of the
associate or joint venture.
(vii) Transactions eliminated on consolidation
Intra-HEINEKEN balances and transactions, and any unrealised gains and losses or income and expenses arising from intra-HEINEKEN transactions, are
eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Unrealised gains arising from transactions with equity-accounted associates and IVs are
eliminated against the investment to the extent of HEINEKEN's interest in the investee. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised
gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.
Heineken N.V. Annual Report 2012