32. Financial risk management and financial instruments
HEINEKEN has exposure to the following risks from its use of financial instruments, as they arise in the normal course of ElEINEKEN's business:
This note presents information about ElEINEKEN's exposure to each of the above risks, and it summarises ElEINEKEN's policies and processes that are
in place for measuring and managing risk, including those related to capital management. Further quantitative disclosures are included throughout
these consolidated financial statements.
Risk management framework
The Executive Board, under the supervision of the Supervisory Board, has overall responsibility and sets rules for ElEINEKEN's risk management and
control systems. They are reviewed regularly to reflect changes in market conditions and the Group's activities. The Executive Board oversees the
adequacy and functioning of the entire system of risk management and internal control, assisted by Group departments.
The Global Treasury function focuses primarily on the management of financial risk and financial resources. Some of the risk management strategies
include the use of derivatives, primarily in the form of spot and forward exchange contracts and interest rate swaps, but options can be used as well.
It is the Group policy that no speculative transactions are entered into.
Credit risk is the risk of financial loss to HEINEKEN if a customer or counterparty to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations,
and arises principally from HEINEKEN's receivables from customers and investment securities.
The economic crisis has impacted our regular business activities and performance, in particular in consumer spending and solvency. However, the
business impact differed across the regions and operations. Local management has assessed the risk exposure following Group instructions and is
taking action to mitigate the higher than usual risks. Intensified and continuous focus is being given in the areas of customers (managing trade
receivables and loans) and suppliers (financial position of critical suppliers).
As at the balance sheet date there were no significant concentrations of credit risk. The maximum exposure to credit risk is represented by the
carrying amount of each financial instrument, including derivative financial instruments, in the consolidated statement of financial position.
Loans to customers
HEINEKEN's exposure to credit risk is mainly influenced by the individual characteristics of each customer. HEINEKEN's held-to-maturity investments
includes loans to customers, issued based on a loan contract. Loans to customers are ideally secured by, amongst others, rights on property or intangible
assets, such as the right to take possession of the premises of the customer. Interest rates calculated by H EINEKEN are at least based on the risk-free
rate plus a margin, which takes into account the risk profile of the customer and value of security given.
HEINEKEN establishes an allowance for impairment of loans that represents its estimate of incurred losses. The main components of this allowance
are a specific loss component that relates to individually significant exposures, and a collective loss component established for groups of similar
customers in respect of losses that have been incurred but not yet identified. The collective loss allowance is determined based on historical data
of payment statistics.
In a few countries the issue of new loans is outsourced to third parties. In most cases, HEINEKEN issues sureties (guarantees) to the third party
for the risk of default by the customer.
Heineken N.V. Annual Report 2011