Financial statements I Notes to the consolidated financial statements continued
3. Significant accounting policies continued
(v) Gains and losses on sale
Net gains on sale of items of P, P E are presented in profit or loss as other income. Net losses on sale are included in depreciation. Net gains
and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the
consideration is probable, the associated costs can be estimated reliably, and there is no continuing management involvement with the P, P E.
(g) Intangible assets
Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and represents the excess of the cost of the acquisition over HEINEKEN's
interest in net fair value of the net identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree.
Goodwill on acquisitions of subsidiaries is included in 'intangible assets'. Goodwill arising on the acquisition of associates and joint ventures is included
in the carrying amount of the associate, respectively the joint ventures. In respect of acquisitions prior to 1 October 2003, goodwill is included on the
basis of deemed cost, being the amount recorded under previous GAAP. Goodwill on acquisitions purchased before 1 January 2003 has been
deducted from equity.
Goodwill arising on the acquisition of a non-controlling interest in a subsidiary represents the excess of the cost of the additional investment over
the carrying amount of the interest in the net assets acquired at the date of exchange.
Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses (refer accounting policy 3i(ii)). Goodwill is allocated to individual or groups of
cash-generating units (CGUs) for the purpose of impairment testing and is tested annually for impairment. Negative goodwill is recognised directly
in profit or loss as other income.
Brands acquired, separately or as part of a business combination, are capitalised if they meet the definition of an intangible asset and the recognition
criteria are satisfied.
Brands acquired as part of a business combination are valued at fair value based on the royalty relief method. Brands acquired separately are measured
Strategic brands are well-known international/local brands with a strong market position and an established brand name. Strategic brands
are amortised on an individual basis over the estimated useful life of the brand. Other brands are amortised on a portfolio basis per country.
(Hi) Customer-related and contract-based intangibles
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles are capitalised if they meet the definition of an intangible asset and the recognition criteria
are satisfied. If the amounts are not material these are included in the brand valuation. The relationship between brands and customer-related
intangibles is carefully considered so that brands and customer-related intangibles are not both recognised on the basis of the same cash flows.
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles acquired as part of a business combination are valued at fair value. Customer-related
and contract-based intangibles acquired separately are measured at cost.
Customer-related and contract-based intangibles are amortised over the remaining useful life of the customer relationships or the period of
the contractual arrangements.
Heineken N.V. Annual Report 2011